Constructivism is a theory of knowledge (epistemology) that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas. During infancy, it is an interaction between their experiences and their reflexes or behavior-patterns. Piaget called these systems of knowledge schemata. Piaget's theory of constructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements. Research support for constructivist teaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supporting these techniques and other research contradicting those results.
Constructivism approach of teaching in teaching mathematics is one of a major concerned in ICSS. This method enable students to solve problems, construct their own knowledge and concepts and meaningful learning. Constructivism can be described as a learning process that explains how knowledge is acquired and structured in the mine of an individual. However, the knowledge should not be transmitted, but constructed by the learner themselves based on their ability and experience/previous knowledge. In order to implement this approach the teacher should encourage and allow students to construct knowledge through problem solving, exploration and conjecture. Teacher also should encourage students to work in group and also always making discussion.
According to the social constructivist approach, teacher will be the instructor or facilitator and have to adapt to the role of facilitators and not as a teachers. During constructivist approach lesson, teacher will need to plan the strategy in order to implement the approach. Teacher needs to identify the actions that represent the knowledge or skill that need to be constructed by the students. Teacher also will provide the activity that would make the construction a reality and also provides the manipulative materials that are required to carry out the activity. After that, teacher will only facilitate by helping the student to develop their own knowledge but not giving the direct way to obtain or giving the answer to the students.
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